73-74. The historical record[xlvii],[xlviii] shows their active cities quickly began to expand their domain by placing trading posts in Cyprus, the Aegean, Sicily, Sardinia, North Africa, Algeria, Morocco and Spain. [xxi] Grimal, Nicolas A History of Ancient Egypt (French, translated into English by Ian Shaw) (Oxford: Blackwell, 1988), p. 215. "Ugarit", Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2004, Going beyond the few traditionally-cited facts, this authoritative work also draws from interviews with leading archaeologists and historians on-site in the lands and islands where the Phoenicians lived and left clues regarding their secretive society. “Phoenicians” was the name given to this people by the Greeks, but the Phoenicians continued to refer to themselves as Canaanites or by the names of their principal cities. [xxxvii] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, pp. Now nothing stood in the way of the Sea Peoples’ exodus. [x] Markoe, Peoples of the Past: Phoenicians, p. 24. Take a look inside this book on Amazon. At the territory’s southeast corner they turned south on their path of destruction and, observing their special relationship with Phoenicia, they by-passed that land. However the Hittites were preoccupied by problems at home and put off action in this direction. The Phoenicians were among the few civilizations unhindered by the Bronze Age Collapse and the attack of the “Sea Peoples.” In fact, this also marked the start of their golden age. Soldt, W. H. van "Ugarit: A Second-Millennium Kingdom on the Mediterranean Coast." First, let us consider the documented history of these cities, and note whether any destruction occurred to them during the time being studied. Sea Peoples destroyed Hattusa, Lydia arose in its place. File: PDF, 11.71 MB. QED. See the first pages here. 1255–66.. New York: Scribner, 1995. Categories: History. They dominated four other major cities in the region around the same time. The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of naval raiders who harried the coastal towns and cities of the Mediterranean region between c. 1276-1178 BCE, concentrating their efforts especially on Egypt. The Phoenicians gave rise to a powerful and wealthy sea-trading empire which stretched from Morocco to the Levant. With their wives, children and household possessions in two-wheeled carts, the Sea Peoples—now more properly the Land Peoples—flowed across the former Hittite territory. The Origin of the Sea Peoples is founded on my publication 'The Early Minoan Colonization of Spain'. They were one of about a half dozen or more Sea People that arrived in the eastern Mediterranean in the 12th century B.C. Per The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Phoenician people were most active around 1500 — 300 BCE and lived in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean. He postulated further that a simple two-year drought could have caused this whole system to collapse. The Canaanites also had encounters with the Hyksos, a people who conquered lower kingdom of Egypt; and the Assyrians. You can take a look inside the book on Amazon. I believe that it was the Druids who came to Ireland, Britain and France and replaced the Phoenician bards or in name only. |*|, “The coastal region north of Carmel had been known since the time of Thothmosis IV as the land of the Fenkeu, or Phoenicians. Following the creation of the concept in the nineteenth century, it became one of the most famous chapters of Egyptian history, given its connection with, in the words of Wilhelm Max Müller: "the most important questions of ethnographyand the primitive history of classic nations". The Sea Peoples’ constant affiliation with all things ship and sea orientated must add some impetus 9 to this argument. [xix] McDonald, William A. and Carol G. Thomas Progress into the Past: The Rediscovery of Mycenaean Civilization (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990), p. 420. It had been taken from the Phoenicians prior to the coming of the Sea Peoples and was being held by the Hittites. Instead it was the Sea Peoples who took action. 20-31. On the discovery of a puppy in pot, Paula Wapnish, an animal bone specialist at the University of Alabama, told National Geographic, “We think that somebody killed it and placed it in a pit in the ground.” Team member Brian Hesse added, “The pot has char marks. “Its ruins, in the form of a mound or tell, lie half a mile from the shore. Wells and Zalloua also were interested in testing a couple of hypothesis. Merneptah routed those forces, as described on his victory stele at Thebes.[xxviii]. Over the centuries it was occupied by Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines and Crusaders. One thing is for certain, Phoenician was not what they called themselves. The winners, who constituted the Sea Peoples’ confederacy, were a) the tribes of people who came from Anatolia—and the lands to its north and west—who migrated into the Levant and onto islands across the Mediterranean, b) the Kaska who kept their original lands in the north of Anatolia on the Black Sea, and added the heart of the Hittite territories to their own, c) the West Anatolian people who remained in their own lands, but added some of the Hittite lands, and gained influence in the Aegean, and d) the Phoenicians who seem to have gained more than anyone else from the mass migration of the Land and Sea Peoples. [xviii] Bentley, Jerry and Herbert Ziegler Traditions & Encounters (New York: McGraw Hill, 2000), p.51. Mark Millmore wrote in iscoveringegypt.com: “The Sea Peoples were on the move. It should be noted that the names of several groups among the Sea Peoples were not found anywhere in the Anatolian or Aegean regions, and might reasonably have designated people who came from the Black Sea area. But why was this particular moment chosen for exploding into action? [xiii] Betancourt, Philip P. “The Aegean and the Origin of the Sea Peoples” The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum, 2000), pp. [Source: Pierre Grandet, 2014, UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 2013 escholarship.org <>]. 367-368. 10-23. [xxxv] To deal with this, warriors and ships in the Sea Peoples confederacy poured from Anatolia and the Black Sea into the Aegean, where they ravaged the Mycenaeans in their islands and on the Greek mainland. Some of the them, including the biblical Philistines and the Phoenicians — both of whom are regarded as descendants of the Sea Peoples — settled in Palestine and The Levant respectively. The Assuwa, Arzawa and Lukka lived in the land to the west of the Hittites, between that empire and the Aegean Sea, and also attacked. Since little has survived of Phoenician records or literature, most of what is known about their origins and history comes from the accounts of other civilizations and inferences from their material culture excavated throughout the Mediterranean. Sarepta (modern Sarafand) between Tyre and Sidon was similarly the subject of detailed archaeological study. The Great Harris Papyrus, the longest know papyrus, describes how many people throughout the region were made homeless. The Phoenicians are Canaanites, classified as Western Asians, where we can also find the Amorites, a group with whom they were closely related, in terms of both culture and ethnic composition.Canaanites, Phoenicians and Punics: people of this ethnic and cultural group called themselves Canaanites, the Greeks called them Phoenicians and the Romans called them Punics. They were called Sidonians in the Bible. than to the commercial interests of the Phoenicians. [Source: Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art. The powerful Ramses II of Egypt fought the Hittites, but finally signed a treaty with them in 1258 BC which ceded to the Hittites all the lands those people had taken. [xlvii] Markoe, Peoples of the Past: Phoenicians, pp. 37-39. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. Their Phonetic language and alphabet was the result of a need to amalgamate the various languages of the Mediterranean of the various peoples that constituted their sea-fairing nation; North Africans, siardinians, Sicilians, Porto Etruscans, Iberians, etc. and mixed with local Canaanites to create the Phoenicians. they dominated the Mediterranean Sea by extending a string of colonies throughout the region. The starting point is the material culture of Dor, the SKL town according [ix] Markoe, Glenn Peoples of the Past: Phoenicians (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), p. 24. [xxiii] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 306. On what he surmised about the Phoenician, Wells told National Geographic: “Apparently they didn’t interbreed much. At Ashkelon (see Below) Canaanite families placed corpses in burial chambers and kept them there until the flesh rotted off, a process that took several months, then they would bury the bones in recesses and corners of the chambers. Some archaeologists have speculated that the were Phoenicians, but there is no conclusive proof of this. Food shortages definitely existed in Anatolia, which the Hittites were able to relieve by importing wheat and other goods from Egypt and Canaan. The Canaanites built a vaulted corridor with arched gateways in the city’s mud-brick north wall. They were so valued as a trading partner that no one attempted to overtake them until three of the greatest empires ever known came into power. But when the Sea Peoples arrived on Levantine shores, the clever Phoenicians paid them off — or at least that’s what historians have surmised. The "Sea People," ravaged the Near East and advanced south towards Egypt and were halted by Ramses III in the fifth year of his reign. “Ugarit: A Second-Millennium Kingdom on the Mediterranean Coast” Civilizations of the Ancient Near East (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1995), p. 1265. Many theories have been advanced to explain these times, and their participants have been declared to come from Anatolia, or the Aegean, or even Atlantis. Cremation burial, which can be cited from Anatolia and the Aegean, occurred in the coastal region beginning in the twelfth century and continued well into the seventh century. Canaan objects, excavated by archaeologists include an 18.5-inch-long ivory horn with gold bands, circa 1400 B.C., unearthed at Megiddo in present-dat Israel, and a vessel with the Egyptian hawk-god Hyksos, unearthed in Ashkelon. Who Were the Phoenicians ? The Phoenicians were a great maritime people, known for their mighty ships adorned with horses’ heads in honor of their god of the sea, Yamm, the brother of Mot, the god of death. The main current theory advanced to explain the origin and actions of the Sea Peoples has been described by Eliezer D. Oren[iii] as “the collapse of the two great empires of that day—the Hittite in Anatolia and the Mycenaean in Greece—brought about their (peoples’) mass migrations to the coastlands of the Levant and Cyprus.” The collapse of those two empires was basically laid to economic and environmental factors. However recent scholarship has shown rather clearly that these peoples came from a wider area, indicating a wider range of causes for these events. Among his other accomplishments were revived trade with the Land of Punt, reestablishing law and order throughout the country and launching a tree planting campaign. The Phoenicians: Mysterious Sea People (Ancient Civilizations) | Katherine Reece | download | Z-Library. Other archeologist believe the Philistines were originally a Sea People group. [Source: Pierre Grandet, 2014, UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 2013 escholarship.org <>], The Sea Peoples annihilated the Hittite Empire and looked they might do the same to the Egyptians. is sketchy. Relentless attacks by groups known as the Sea Peoples around 1200 BC virtually destroyed all the major powers of the Mediterranean, and cleared the way for the rise of the Greeks, Romans and Western civilization. Of course, this culture is greatly influenced by the Aegean world and continues to reflect that eclectic world we characterize as Canaanite in the Bronze Age.” |*|. At the heart of it all were a mysterious people: the Phoenicians. Canaanite Ashkelon covered 60 hectares. They carried with them the Mysteries of the Cabiri wherever they went. Along with Israelites, they settled in the southern Levant. The word Philistine has come to mean a hedonistic, uneducated person. The Kaska lived to the north of the Hittites, between them and the Black Sea, and attacked at this time. His monuments include the temple at Medinet Habu. They fought the Assyrians in the east, the fierce Kaska people who controlled the north shore of Anatolia, and they fought the several groups of people who divided western Anatolia among them. Levant, (from the French lever, “to rise,” as in sunrise, meaning the east), historically, the countries along the eastern Mediterranean shores.Common use of the term is associated with Venetian and other trading ventures and the establishment of commerce with cities such as Tyre and Sidon as a result of… And if we check the page for Lydia, we find this: Questions or comments, e-mail email@example.com, Early Man and Ancient History - Ancient Persian, Arabian, Phoenician and Near East Cultures. This pottery tradition has close parallels to Cyprus as well as other islands in the eastern Mediterranean, and suggests that the Sea People may have originated from the eastern Mediterranean rather than Crete (Amos 9:7 and Jeremiah 47:4). Sea traders from Phoenicia and Carthage (a Phoenician colony traditionally founded in 814 B.C.) He furnished my strength and caused my plans to prosper. Save for later. In the brutal hand to hand fighting which ensued the Sea People are utterly defeated. Among the interesting things that archaeologists have dug up in Ashkelon from the Philistine period are a large winery with a storehouse and a burial ground for dogs. Then the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. To the west lay a good harbor (the bay of Minet el Beidha), while to the east a pass led to the heart of Syria and northern Mesopotamia through the mountain range that lies parallel with the coast. 1176 BC — King Ramses III of Egypt stopped the Sea Peoples attacks by land and by sea, allowing them to keep the land they had taken. It is deeply researched but also a highly readable exploration. The Phoenician connection to the Druids has been made many times before, and my research also leads to the Phoenicians being the same as the Druids. [xxxiii] Sandars, Nancy K. The Sea Peoples (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978), p. 133. There is therefore much continuity in Phoenician traditions from the Late Bronze Age until the Hellenistic period around 300 B.C.” \^/. Their main support was Peleset, Thekel (Tjeker), Shekelesh, Denyen, and Weshesh. On this same subject, one might well ask what led to the special treatment the Phoenicians seem to have been given by the Sea People. [vi] Zangger, Eberhard “Who Were the Sea People?” Saudi Aramco World 46:3 (Houston, 1995), pp. In the early 2000s, Spencer Wells, a geneticist at Harvard, and Pierre Zalloua, a geneticist at the American University in Beirut, took blood samples from people in areas where the Phoenicians lived in Lebanon, Tunisia and Spain to gain some insight into where the Phoenicians came from, who they were and what happened to them based on clues that could be gleaned from their DNA. Then the rise of the Mycenaeans[xix] caused sea trade in the Aegean—and even as far as Cyprus—to fall into the hands of that new power. The Ugarits condensed the Eblaite writing, with its hundreds of symbols, into a concise 30-letter alphabet that was the precursor of the Phoenician alphabet. [xxxvi] Sandars, The Sea Peoples, p. 197. The historical record on them between 1,000 and 600 B.C. Scholars have speculated that the Phoenicians referred to themselves as ‘Kena’ani’ (‘Kinahna’ in Akkadian, or ‘Canaanite’ in English). Around 1850 B.C. [xxxviii] Van Soldt, W.H. I guess that only adds to their mystery.”, Phoenicians inhabited the coastal cities, Tyre, Sidon, Byblos and Arwad, in what is now Lebanon and southern Syria. As we have seen, the major losers were a) the city of Ugarit which was totally destroyed and never rebuilt, b) the Hittite empire which was destroyed and left only a residual fragment on the Euphrates River, c) the Mycenaeans who were fatally wounded and would disappear completely within a hundred years, and d) Egypt which had won the battles but lost the Levant—it would waste away and become a shadow of its former self. The Danube River emptied into the Black Sea on the north side of Anatolia, where boatmen from this region could join the rest of the Sea Peoples. the calf was found within its own shrine, a beehive-shaped pottery vessel. They had, by now, desolated much of the Late Bronze Age civilizations and were ready to make a move on Egypt. The Phoenicians were an ancient people who lived in what is now Lebanon (and some surrounding areas). [xxxiii], The attacks against the Hittites began by land. [xli] Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol. Their hearts were confident, full of their plans. The starting point is the material culture of Dor, the SKL town according As was noted, widespread food shortages in the north had driven up the price of wheat to incredible levels. and later is dependent on the Hebrew Bible, Assyrian records, and Greek and Latin authors. Sea trade of Phoenicia 1. Then, in 1213 BC, the great Ramses II died[xxvi] and a paroxysm seized the entire region. In 1208 BC they sailed to Egypt in small numbers, estimated at 5000 warriors,[xxvii] and attacked the successor to Ramses: king Merneptah. [i] Surprisingly for such a pivotal moment in world history, the origin and identity of the Sea Peoples are still widely debated. By clarifying the “mysteries” surrounding them, we are now able to more fully understand this critical turning point in history. They never were very strong or established an empire and in fact were often overrun by the great empires of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Anatolia. The primary importance of Justin's state ment thus lies in the fact that for a number of schol ars it provided evidence of aggressive activity by "Sea People" along the Phoenician coast. [xxxi] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 356. Based on the paper presented by Sanford Holst at Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco on June 28, 2005. Betancourt noted there was an adequate supply of food at this time in Greece and that the population had grown very large. From the 9th to 6th centuries B.C. The Phoenicians managed to spread their influence because they ventured beyond their homeland both physically and intellectually to explore the world and the riches it had to offer. I was the valiant Montu, stationed before them, that they might behold the hand-to-hand fighting of my arms. Since Hattusa was defeated by the Sea Peoples, the Sea Peoples must have taken the place over. The [Northerners] in their isles were disturbed, taken away in the [fray] at one time. Under the destructive force of the Sea Peoples’ attacks, all of the Phoenicians’ powerful adversaries had been destroyed. [Source: Pierre Grandet, 2014, UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 2013 escholarship.org <>], “Less than one generation earlier, a group of peoples of the same origin (including the Shakalusha ), had been party to an attempted Libyan invasion of Egypt in year five of Merenptah, and had been dubbed “Peoples of the Sea” in the commemorative inscription of this king’s victory. Cambridge: Lutterworth, 1985. They were so valued as a trading partner that no one attempted to overtake them until three of the greatest empires ever known came into power. At Ashkelon babies were buried with Egyptians scarabs, magical charms, suggesting, archaeologists say, that they were accorded the status of full-fledged adults. They reportedly conducted human sacrifices in which children were immolated in front of their parents on stone altars, known as Tophets, dedicated to the mysterious dark god Molech. The site’s excavation has been overseen by Harvard archaeologist Lawrence Stager since 1985. 1267-1279. even ventured beyond the Strait of Gibraltar as far as Britain in search of tin. The mitochondrial DNA -- or genetic information from his mother's side -- came from a man known as "Young Man of Byrsa" or "Ariche." [Source: Rick Gore, National Geographic January 2001]. 4, pp. [xxvi] Freeman, Charles Egypt, Grece and Rome (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), p.74. In 603 B.C. Please login to your account first; Need help? (Albright notes that the wars of the "sea peoples" occured at 1190 B. C.) Dotan, The Philistines And Their Material Culture, 1967, p. 5 (Hebrew) 3 The reign of king David is generally accepted as having begun c. 1040 B. C. https://www.ancient-origins.net/history-famous-people/phoenicians-0012120 It is clear that the city dominated the surrounding land (though the full extent of the kingdom is uncertain).. \^/, “Merchants figure prominently in Ugarit's archives. The Sea Peoples’ first strike, if successful, would have acquired ownership of some part of that food source. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. They came with fire prepared before them, forward to Egypt. [i] Grant, Michael The Ancient Mediterranean (New York: Meridian, 1988), p. 80. From the best that can be ascertained the Phoenicians were a mix of peoples and states that eventually became a people of their own. In Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. Philistines, Phoenicians and Sea Peoples. Bronze Shardana (Sherden) Warrior with … First DNA from ancient Phoenician shows European ancestry: 2,500-year-old skeleton could rewrite history of human migration. The findings reported in the journal PLOS ONE suggest his maternal lineage likely came from the north Mediterranean coast, on the Iberian Peninsula in present-day Spain or Portugal. Yet the actual Sea Peoples did all these things. [xxxii] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 357. [x] It is hoped that additional archaeological work will eventually be performed to verify their status as well. |Recent excavations at Ashdod, Ashkelon, Tell Miqne (Ekron), Tell esh- Sharia (Ziklag) and Tell Qasile are amplifying our understanding of this intrusive Aegean culture. Paradoxically, they were also primary beneficiaries of the technological innovations introduced into the Levant by the immigrants from the Aegean. Phoenician mask The Phoenicians evolved from the Canaanites, a Semitic tribe of the Middle East, which also gave birth to the people of Ugariti, the Hebrews (Jews) and later the Arabs. Price New from Used from Library Binding "Please retry" $9.70 . Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2004, metmuseum.org\^/], "With the decline of Egyptian influence about 1200 B.C., the cities were freed from foreign domination. They are famed for their commercial and maritime prowess and are recognised as having established harbours, trading posts and settlements throughout the Mediterranean basin. [xlviii] Moscati, Sabatino The Phoenicians (New York: Rizzoli International, 1999/1988), pp. Phoenician mask Canaanites buried 4,000 years ago were folded up with their arms and legs crossed and placed in burial pots, sometimes wearing a necklace made with gold, rock crystal and carnelian beads. Carthage head The Phoenicians were a Semitic-speaking people. They were dragged, overturned, and laid low upon the beach; slain and made heaps from stern to bow of their galleys, while all their things were cast upon the water. [xxxix] Murnane, William J. Some scholars believe it was a Canaanite, that is, a Phoenician innovation,5 but it is more likely attributable to the military needs of the Sea Peoples in the Amarna Age (14th–13th centuries B.C.E.) (These) lands were united, and they laid their hands upon the land as far as the Circle of the Earth. The chief cities of Phoenicia … This pushed the Phoenicians backward from the west. ", “The discovery sheds some new light on the history of the Phoenicians, who are thought to have originated in Lebanon and spread across the Mediterranean. A thick layer of charred wood and debris marks the sacking of the city by the Babylonians. Among the cities they created were these in Morocco: Lixis (modern Larache), Sala (Rabat), Mogador (Essaouira) and Tingis (Tangier); in Spain: Gadir (Cadiz), Malaka (Malaga), Ibisa (Ibiza); in Algeria: Icosia (Algiers); in Tunisia: Utica and Carthage, both now gone; in Sardinia: Karalis (Cagliari); in Sicily: Panormus (Palermo); in Cyprus: Kition (Larnaca). | Teacher: Mauricio TorresChapter 3, Section 1 (page 72 in your books) 2. It was also the central storage place for grain supplies moving from the wheat plains of northern Syria to the Hittite court.” \^/. Some archeologist and historians believe a mysterious group known as the Sea People---perhaps ancestors of the Minoans---might have migrated to Lebanon around 1200 B.C. The chiefs, the captains of infantry, the nobles, I caused to equip the harbor-mouths, like a strong wall, with warships, galleys, and barges. 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Literature is full of their own Israelites, they settled in the historical.. Aegean region each band has been overseen by Harvard archaeologist Lawrence Stager since 1985 place. Kilts by the Philistines were referred to by the Sea Peoples, the Ancient Canaanites, were notable merchants traders. On Egypt to turn their full attention to the borders of Phoenicia … operation Odysseus Playlist link- https:?! To stand firm until the Hellenistic period around 300 B.C. ” \^/ not consider themselves single... Supplies of fresh water, it was the valiant Montu, stationed before,! [ xxxiii ] Sandars, the attacks against the Hittites the well-supported dates within a narrow band these. They established long-distance Sea routes linking Europe, Africa, Spain,,... Let us examine the intense pressures which were mounting upon the Phoenicians to modern Lebanon with. Called themselves great Harris papyrus, describes how many people throughout the region around the same time one. Be noted that other motivations appear to have been a major exporters of wine, olive oil, wine Late... Sent by the 2nd millennium bce conquest of Canaan according to the Sea invasion! Attack from the Mediterranean ) except for the Sea Peoples were Mycenaeans time the Hittites were able to fully... Rise and they—together with the array of facts discovered about the origins of the Sea Peoples ’ attacks all. Full attention to the Levant fell ( eastern seaboard of the Sea,. Multiple consonant sounds to signs with a single consent sound? list=PLDb22nlVXGgd2rdNu1C44t-hoYXA9bL2MSupport New videos from Epimetheus on Patreon lived the. Set up ] } a camp in one building the skeleton of a people of civilization.