british colonial empire


Although loath to lessen its hold over countries it had done much to develop, and thereby to incur great economic and political loss, Britain gradually capitulated to the pressures of nationalist sentiment. The abolition of slavery in the West Indies and costly anti-slavery naval patrols off West Africa were draining the Empire’s economic resources. Charges & Fees. The Treaty of 1763The Treaty of Paris of Feb. 10, 1763, was signed by Great Britain, France, and Spain...... Click the link for more information. ) The Illustrated Rise and Fall of the British Empire by Lawrence James (Little, Brown, 1999) The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Eighteenth Century edited by PJ Marshall (OUP, 1998) A Demographic Survey of the British Colonial Empire. The process of disintegration of the British Empire led to the appearance in its place of the so-called Commonwealth, which comprises the majority of the liberated countries that made up the British Empire. The second period, 1914-18, was marked by the First World War and its impact on the British colonial empire in general and on Malaya in particular. 1948. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the crown exercised control over its colonies chiefly in the areas of trade and shipping. Noté /5. The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) secured for Great Britain the Cape Colony (South Africa), Malta, Ceylon, and other territories that it had seized in the late 18th century and early 19th century. The geographic and political units formerly under British control, including dominions, colonies, dependencies, trust territories, and protectorates. British military and naval power, under the leadership of such men as Robert Clive, James Wolfe, and Eyre Coote, gained for Britain two of the most important parts of its empire—Canada and India. 1968); C. Cross, The Fall of the British Empire (1968); G. S. Graham, A Concise History of the British Empire (1970); C. Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (1972); T. O. Lloyd, The British Empire, 1558–1982 (1984); A. Clayton, The British Empire as a Superpower, 1919–1939 (1986); A. J. Christopher, The British Empire at Its Zenith (1988); P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, British Imperialism, 1688–2000 (rev. The largest of them was the Indian Mutiny of 1857-59, which threatened British rule in India and forced the colonialists to change the system of government of India. British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies— colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government. Despite tenacious resistance by the mother country, industry was developing in the countries of the British Empire (especially in the settled colonies and India); a national bourgeoisie and a proletariat were taking shape and becoming an increasingly serious force in political life. The Empire began chiefly for the purposes of trade and gradually evolved into a complex web in which new nations were eventually projected out into an independent existence, by the actions of the old nations. The victory over France and the establishment of Great Britain’s domination of the sea promoted an increase in its colonial expansion in all parts of the world. The wealth generated from the expansion of Britain’s global empire and from its exploitation of resources and people, especially through the transatlantic slave trade, enabled the growth of collections such as those of the British Museum. An empire doesn't need an 'emperor'. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Map showing the British Empire at its greatest extent. The imperialist circles of Great Britain and of the “old dominions” seek to utilize the Commonwealth as a screen to conceal their neocolonialist policy, which is aimed at preserving their economic and political positions in the countries of the Commonwealth. vii + 821. The loss of Britain’s 13 American colonies in 1776–83 was compensated by new settlements in Australia from 1788 and by the spectacular growth of Upper Canada (now Ontario) after the emigration of loyalists from what had become the United States. A new YouGov poll has found the British public are generally proud of the British Empire and its colonial past. The formation of the empire was thus an unorganized process based on piecemeal acquisition, sometimes with the British government being the least willing partner in the enterprise. However, all attempts to preserve the colonial empire failed. Independence was achieved by Western Samoa (1962), a former trust territory of New Zealand, and by Nauru (1968), a former trust territory of Australia, Great Britain and New Zealand. European demand for sugar and tobacco led to the growth of plantations on the islands of the Caribbean and in SE North America. [Rev. The situation of the British colonies in North America was different. currency. Partitioning of India. I. Great Britain held the principal place in their foreign trade. The slave trade acquired a peculiar importance to Britain’s colonial economy in the Americas, and it became an economic necessity for the Caribbean colonies and for the southern parts of the future United States. The dominions had virtually no direct diplomatic ties with foreign states. Iraq gained full sovereignty in 1932; British privileges in Egypt were modified by treaty in 1936; and concessions were made toward self-government in India and later in the African colonies. marked the end of the first British Empire. The British decision to grant independence to India arose primarily out of necessity; however, Gandhi’s successful social movements also inspired a fundamental change in the perceptions of colonial power that eventually led to the collapse of the British Colonial Empire. Browse. It was clear that Britain was unable to afford an empire anymore. British lawyer and law lord Cyril Radcliffe, 1st Viscount Radcliffe (1899 - 1977) … The Imperial ConferenceImperial Conference,assembly of representatives of the self-governing members of the British Empire, held about every four years until World War II. 28, p. 511). The struggle for the capture of not yet divided territories and for the strengthening of the British Empire was the core of British foreign policy. In 1839, Lord Durham, in response to unrest in Canada, issued his "Report on the Affairs of British North America." There are many articles that cover different aspects of the British Empire: 1. In this period the English policy of colonial seizures, although it was directly related to the development of trade and industry, was determined mainly by the interests of the aristocracy, which was seeking to acquire overseas territories for the consolidation of its feudal land monopoly. The Russian Revolution of 1905-07 was a major influence on the development of the national liberation movement in the British Empire. https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/British+colonial+empire, Secondly, Malaya had to take into account the principles laid down by the Secretary of State for the Colonies with regard to the general economic and commercial policy of the, Finally, Draper positions the slaveholders he uncovers within the extant narratives of slavery's end in the, Mixed Messages is a collection of commissioned essays, seven of which analyze publications of Protestant missionaries in various parts of the, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, The colonial state and business: the policy environment in Malaya in the inter-war years, The Price of Emancipation: Slave-ownership, Compensation and British Society at the End of Slavery, Mixed Messages: Materiality, Textuality, Missions, British Columbia Water, Land & Air Ministry, British Imperial System of weights and measures, British National Association of Spiritualists, British Coal Respiratory Disease Litigation, British Coal Utilisation Research Association, British Codes of Advertising and Sales Promotion, British College of Naturopathy and Osteopathy, British College of Systemic Psychotherapy & Counselling, British Collegiate American Football League, British Colloquium for Theoretical Computer Science, British Coloured Sheep Breeders Association, British Columbia & Yukon Chamber of Mines, British Columbia Aboriginal Fisheries Commission, British Columbia Aboriginal Mine Training Association, British Columbia Aboriginal Network on Disability Society, British Columbia Acupressure Therapists' Association, British Columbia Adult Graduation Diploma, British Columbia Advanced Systems Institute, British Columbia Alliance of Aromatherapy, British Columbia Alternate Education Association, British Columbia Amateur Hockey Association, British Columbia Amateur Radio Coordination Council. In the first half of the 19th century Great Britain, in the main, completed the conquest of India and was colonizing Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. Antonyms for British colonial empire. In 1858 the East India Company was liquidated; India became a crown colony, and in 1876 the English Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. British Government in the Colonial Era The AMERICAN COLONIES AND THE EMPIRE To fully understand the relationship of colonial America with the British Empire, we should keep in mind first of all that the colonists did not question the idea of being part of the British Empire until shortly before the American Revolution began. Large-scale monopolistic trading companies were formed in England, including the East India Company (1600). However, one-sided “alliance treaties,” which in fact preserved British dominance, were imposed on Egypt and Iraq. The origins of the empire date from the late 16th cent. The British Empire was no benign ruler over the lands in its control. Synonyms for British colonial empire in Free Thesaurus. (The African population of the British colony of Southern Rhodesia is waging a struggle for liberation from the rule of a racist regime supported by Great Britain.) James Wolfe, painting attributed to J.S.C. Rain … Enslaved persons on a West Indian plantation being freed following passage of the Slavery Abolition Act (1833). Britain's new industrial supremacy lent greater force to doctrines of free tradefree trade,in modern usage, trade or commerce carried on without such restrictions as import duties, export bounties, domestic production subsidies, trade quotas, or import licenses...... Click the link for more information. The British Empire at its peak controlled 13,700,000 square miles, nearly a quarter of the land area on earth. British colonial America; Dutch empire; European empires from 1415; Europe; Empires; North America; United States; 1668: England's East India Company is granted a lease on Bombay by Charles II, who has received it from his Portuguese bride. But the growth, notably in the English-speaking colonies, of national identity and of relative national self-sufficiency, as well as a trend of opinion in Britain favoring colonial self-government, made the British, now engaged in liberalizing their own governing institutions, willing to concede certain powers of self-government to the white colonies. In 1948 the mandate over Palestine was relinquished, and Burma (Myanmar) gained independence as a republic. Colonial powers in the Middle East and North Africa | Historical maps, Historical geography ... 550 x 424 jpeg 45kB. The British North America ActBritish North America Act,law passed by the British Parliament in 1867 that provided for the unification of the Canadian provinces into the dominion of Canada. In India, the East India Company was confronted by the French Compagnie des Indes, but Robert Clive’s military victories against the French and the rulers of Bengal in the 1750s provided the British with a massive accession of territory and ensured their future supremacy in India. WiFi. Aug 15, 2020 - Explore Great History Teaching's board "British Empire", followed by 5819 people on Pinterest. The British Empire was no benign ruler over the lands in its control. In the 1880’s and 1890’s, enormous territories were taken over on the western and eastern coasts of Africa. At its height, it was the largest empire in history, and the world's most powerful superpower for more than a century. The term “British Empire” came into official use in the mid-1870’s. In wars in 1652-54, 1665-67, and 1672-74, England defeated Holland and captured a number of territories in North America. soch., 5th ed., vol. Until 1982 the act also functioned as the constitution of Canada...... Click the link for more information. “The events of the Seven Years’ War transformed the East India Company from a commercial into a military and territorial power. To achieve the imperial self-sufficiency required by prevailing theories of mercantilismmercantilism, economic system of the major trading nations during the 16th, 17th, and 18th cent., based on the premise that national wealth and power were best served by increasing exports and collecting precious metals in return...... Click the link for more information. The Commonwealth includes territories that are still under the rule of Great Britain—Australia and New Zealand—which attests to the retention by the Commonwealth of a number of features of the old British Empire. Usually they began by setting up fortified trading posts, but where no strong indigenous government existed the English gradually extended their powers over the surrounding area. by Simnett, William Edward. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. It was the largest empire in history and despite the vast distances which separated its territories from the Colonial Office in England, it was dominated by the British Navy. Vol. In 1946 the independence of Transjordan was proclaimed. The Indian National Congress in 1906 put forth a demand for self-government for India. These dependencies have varying degrees of self-government. Durham stated that to retain its colonies Britain should grant them a large measure of internal self-government. The world economic crisis of 1929-33 significantly exacerbated the contradictions within the British Empire. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Secured Available. Updates? The peoples of the countries of the Commonwealth continue the struggle against all forms of colonialism and neocolonialism. Britain also encouraged the formation of … and in parts of Africa. By 1670 there were British American colonies in New England, Virginia, and Maryland and settlements in the Bermudas, Honduras, Antigua, Barbados, and Nova Scotia. In India, from the 1740s to 1763, the British East India CompanyEast India Company, British,1600–1874, company chartered by Queen Elizabeth I for trade with Asia. The growing competition of British industry was having an increasingly destructive effect on the economies of the colonies. British Empire. World War I upset the economic relations that had evolved in the British Empire. James Cook to Australia and New Zealand in the 1770s and new conquests in India after 1763 opened a second phase of territorial expansion. The need for cheap labor to work the plantations fostered the growth of the African slave trade. In 1922, Great Britain formally recognized the independence of Egypt. After bloody wars, Great Britain established a de facto protectorate over Afghanistan. added further possessions to the empire, among them Cape Colony, Mauritius, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Trinidad and Tobago, St. Lucia, British Guiana (Guyana), and Malta. The colonial period started in the 16th century and is a very important part of modern British history. Canadian settlements in Alberta, Manitoba, and British Columbia extended British influence to the Pacific, while further British conquests in India brought in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh and the Central Provinces, East Bengal, and Assam. 1967); C. E. Carrington, The British Overseas (2d ed. The countries of the British Empire (except Canada) joined the sterling bloc, which Great Britain created in 1931. Heligoland. With the seizure of Cyprus (1878), the establishment of control over the Suez Canal (1875) and of British rule in Egypt (1882), and with the completion of the conquest of Burma (1885), Great Britain’s position in vast regions of Asia and Africa was solidified. It took power by force and violently subjugated most attempts to resist. Title: BRITISH COLONIAL EMPIRE, Author: Kevin Leon Hollins Bey©™. the designation given to the aggregate of Great Britain and its colonial possessions. The East India Company began establishing trading posts in India in 1600, and the Straits Settlements (Penang, Singapore, Malacca, and Labuan) became British through an extension of that company’s activities. The political fragmentation of the Mughal empire permitted the absorption of one area after another by the British. The old British colonial system began to decline in the eighteenth century. A third of people in the UK believe Britain’s colonies were better off for being part of an empire, a higher proportion than in any of the other major colonial powers, a global survey has revealed. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Go to Catherine of Braganza (1638–1705) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.) As a result of the War of Independence in North America (1775-83), Great Britain lost 13 North American colonies. 75s.] Many states of that region that formally did not belong to the British Empire (for example, the states of the Arabian Peninsula) in fact were semicolonies of Great Britain. In 1947, India was partitioned and independence granted to the new states of India and Pakistan. Making use of its supremacy at sea and of its vast network of naval bases and strongholds, the British colonialists waged numerous colonial wars. By the mid-19th century, during a tenacious struggle (revolts in Canada in 1837-38, in Australia in 1854), these colonies achieved internal self-government (in 1867, Canada became the first British dominion) and began to develop as overseas branches of British capitalism; their ruling circles regarded the remaining colonies as being under their joint ownership with the English bourgeoisie. The word "Empire" will be kept in the honours system despite criticism following the Black Lives Matter protests that the title glorifies Britain's colonial past. . The plight of large nonwhite populations within the empire became a matter of concern to humanitarians. This attested that ties between the mother country and the dominions were still firm. During the long period of unbroken Whig dominance of domestic political life (1714–1762), the empire became less important and less well-regarded, until an ill-fated attempt (largely involving taxes, monopolies, and zoning) to reverse the resulting "salutary neglect" (or "benign neglect") provoked the American Revolutionary War(1775–1783), depriving the empire of its most populous colonies. Jan 22, 2020 - Explore Lennie Scott's board "British Colonial design", followed by 112 people on Pinterest. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. To govern territories with large indigenous populations, the crown colony system was developed. Pets. Lightning Strikes. Under the impact of the Great October Socialist Revolution, a powerful national liberation movement began in the colonial and dependent countries. Despite the recognition of the autonomy of the dominions, the mother country basically still retained control over their foreign relations. officially recognized the independent and equal status under the crown of the former dominions within a British Commonwealth of NationsCommonwealth of Nations,voluntary association of Great Britain and its dependencies, certain former British dependencies that are now sovereign states and their dependencies, and the associated states (states with full internal government but whose external relations are..... Click the link for more information. A 2020 study showed that Britons are more likely than people in France, Germany, Japan, and other former colonial powers to say they would like their country to still have an empire. The imperialists of Great Britain formally recognized the independence of Egypt world for religious reasons as well as monopolies. 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