stages of development


By 10 years old, the average girl weighs 88 pounds, and the average boy weighs 85 pounds. The way we parent is an important factor in a child’s socioemotional growth. Growth slows between 4 and 6 years old: During this time children gain 5–7 pounds and grow about 2–3 inches per year. In stark contrast, independence in Western cultures is taking longer and longer, effectively delaying the onset of adult life. It a series of developments of the physical, social, psychological, intellectual, emotional and other attributes of man. In another example, babies on average are able to hold up their head at 6 weeks old, and 90% of babies achieve this between 3 weeks and 4 months old. After 5 days of mitosis there are 100 cells, and after 9 months there are billions of cells. 11 to 15 years. Help your child problem solve when emotions are running high. Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, as articulated in the second half of the 20th century by Erik Erikson in collaboration with Joan Erikson, is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages that a healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy to late adulthood. Erikson's theory consists of eight stages of development. Here's a list of developmental milestones. False-belief tasks are useful in determining a child’s acquisition of theory-of-mind (TOM). During a screening, the healthcare provider may ask you questions, interact with your child, or conduct tests to find out more about what your child can and cannot yet do. "Stages of Economic Growth" was published in 1960, at the height of the Cold War , and with the subtitle "A Non-Communist Manifesto," it was overtly political. Here are the characteristics of the various developmental stages of children’s drawings. Alcohol and most drugs cross the placenta and affect the fetus. This stage plays an essential role in developing a sense of personal identity which will continue to influence behavior and development for the rest of a person's life. Children with a positive self-concept tend to be more confident, do better in school, act more independently, and are more willing to try new activities (Maccoby, 1980; Ferrer & Fugate, 2003). People are spending more time exploring their options, so they are delaying marriage and work as they change majors and jobs multiple times, putting them on a much later timetable than their parents. Baillargeon’s findings suggest that very young children have an understanding of objects and how they work, which Piaget (1954) would have said is beyond their cognitive abilities due to their limited experiences in the world. At birth, babies apparently recognize their mother’s voice and can discriminate between the language(s) spoken by their mothers and foreign languages, and they show preferences for faces that are moving in synchrony with audible language (Blossom & Morgan, 2006; Pickens, 1994; Spelke & Cortelyou, 1981). Cooing is a one-syllable combination of a consonant and a vowel sound (e.g., coo or ba). Infants are dependent upon their caregivers, so caregivers who are responsive and sensitive to their infant’s needs help their baby to develop a sense of trust; their baby will see the world as a safe, predictable place. Mental and physical activity seems to play a part (Figure). The development stage is one of the stages in the life cycle of a new company. http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-9cbc-2cefd46e68cc@4.100:1/Psychology, Smaller than average eye opening, skin folds at corners of eyes, Plays alongside other children; copies adults, Points to objects when named; puts 2–4 words together in a sentence, Sorts shapes and colors; follows 2-step instructions, Takes turns; expresses many emotions; dresses self, Plays make believe; works toys with parts (levers, handles), Prefers social play to solo play; knows likes and interests, Names colors and numbers; begins writing letters, Distinguishes real from pretend; likes to please friends, Counts to 10 or higher; prints some letters and copies basic shapes, Describe the stages of prenatal development and recognize the importance of prenatal care, Discuss physical, cognitive, and emotional development that occurs from infancy through childhood, Discuss physical, cognitive, and emotional development that occurs during adolescence, Discuss physical, cognitive, and emotional development that occurs in adulthood. While Ainsworth’s research has found support in subsequent studies, it has also met criticism. In a well-known experiment, a researcher placed a red dot of paint on children’s noses before putting them in front of a mirror (Amsterdam, 1972). Our physical, cognitive, and psychosocial skills grow and change as we move through developmental stages from infancy through late adulthood. Late adulthood is considered to extend from the 60s on. Smoking is also considered a teratogen because nicotine travels through the placenta to the fetus. In fact, research suggests that adult cognitive development is a complex, ever changing process that may be even more active than cognitive development in infancy and early childhood (Fischer, Yan, & Stewart, 2003). Your best friend is a smoker who just found out she is pregnant. Schemas are the basic building blocks of such cognitive models, and enable us to form a mental representation of the world. By 2 years old the weight will have quadrupled, so we can expect that a 2 year old should weigh between 20 and 40 pounds. The box, which appeared solid but was actually hollow, was placed next to the track. In the fetal stage, the brain and body continue to develop. Remember that we are a product of both nature and nurture. This could be because of severe depression or substance abuse, or other factors such as the parents’ extreme focus on work. Sitting up with minimal support or while leaning on their hands in tripod position 4. Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order through eight stages of psychosocial development, from infancy to adulthood. They enjoy playing with other children, but they have difficulty sharing their possessions. He argued that social experience was valuable throughout life, with each stage recognizable by the specific conflict we encounter between our psychological needs and the surrounding social environment. Sing, talk, and read to your toddler to boost their vocabularies. Most of the teams follow these stages on the way to deliver high performance. For each milestone there is an average age, as well as a range of ages in which the milestone should be reached. From beginning as a one-cell structure to your birth, your prenatal development occurred in an orderly and delicate sequence. In addition, many students are taking longer (five or six years) to complete a college degree as a result of working and going to school at the same time. Playing with their fingers and toes 3. Cognitive empathy begins to increase in adolescence and is an important component of social problem solving and conflict avoidance. The stages were named after psychologist and developmental biologist Jean Piaget, who recorded the intellectual development and abilities of infants, children, and teens. During adolescence, teenagers move beyond concrete thinking and become capable of abstract thought. In the discussion of biopsychology earlier in the book, you learned about genetics and DNA. At this stage of development, kids are affection, silly and curious but can also be selfish, rude and argumentative. First, they assume that a company must grow and pass through all stages of development or die in the attempt. Then the zygote implants itself into the lining of the woman’s uterus, marking the beginning of the second stage of prenatal development (embryonic stage), which lasts about six weeks. Attachment is a long-standing connection or bond with others. Visual acuity decreases during this time. While doing so, they may collect objects that they come across and develop lifelong interests and hobbies. There exists a wide variation in terms of what is considered "normal," caused by variation in genetic, cognitive, physical, family, cultural, nutritional, educational, and environmental factors. Do you agree with these practices? Take a look at this video clip showing a false-belief task involving a box of crayons. Bowlby said that two things are needed for a healthy attachment: The caregiver must be responsive to the child’s physical, social, and emotional needs; and the caregiver and child must engage in mutually enjoyable interactions (Bowlby, 1969) ([link]). Finally, children with disorganized attachment behaved oddly in the Strange Situation. But before you put too much stock in a single checklist…. It would mean that you would not be able to make so much use of information from your past experience or to plan future actions. Physical decline is gradual. As a parent, you’ll want to know what to expect so you can help your child through each stage…. Attachment in infancy is a critical component of healthy development. Babies born with a heroin addiction need heroin just like an adult addict. What can parents do to nurture a healthy self-concept? If progress stops or seems to stop, it’s time to talk to your child’s healthcare provider. Describe some of the newborn reflexes. A fourth style, known as disorganized attachment, was later described (Main & Solomon, 1990). Also during this time, primary and secondary sexual characteristics develop and mature. Find out how you can help your child master the skill. Cognitively, these children may have poor judgment, poor impulse control, higher rates of ADHD, learning issues, and lower IQ scores. Basic structures of the embryo start to develop into areas that will become the head, chest, and abdomen. One of the most common examples of their cognitive growth is their blossoming curiosity. Researchers at Boston Children’s Hospital looked at four of the best known child development checklists and found that they mention a total of 728 different skills and abilities. What happens in a developmental screening? For example, the brain of a 2-year-old is 55% of its adult size, and by 6 years old the brain is about 90% of its adult size (Tanner, 1978). Despite spending less time with their parents, most teens report positive feelings toward them (Moore, Guzman, Hair, Lippman, & Garrett, 2004). 4. At 18 months old they would touch their own noses when they saw the paint, surprised to see a spot on their faces. During this period of profound growth and development, babies grow and change rapidly. More than two-thirds of the week-old babies turned toward the gauze pad with their mother’s scent. Researchers have found that even very young children understand objects and how they work long before they have experience with those objects (Baillargeon, 1987; Baillargeon, Li, Gertner, & Wu, 2011). According to the National Institutes of Health ([NIH], 2013), routine prenatal care is important because it can reduce the risk of complications to the mother and fetus during pregnancy. What are some known teratogens, and what kind of damage can they do to the developing fetus? In the Strange Situation, the mother (or primary caregiver) and the infant (age 12-18 months) are placed in a room together. After a few minutes, she returns to comfort her child. In cases of resistant attachment, children tend to show clingy behavior, but then they reject the attachment figure’s attempts to interact with them (Ainsworth & Bell, 1970). Sitting involves both coordination and muscle strength, and 90% of babies achieve this milestone between 5 and 9 months old. More importantly, just 40 of those developmental milestones show up on all four checklists, which begs the question: Should you depend on a single checklist? Women experience a gradual decline in fertility as they approach the onset of menopause, the end of the menstrual cycle, around 50 years old. How do we know this? Securely attached children were distressed when their caregivers left the room in the Strange Situation experiment, but when their caregivers returned, the securely attached children were happy to see them. Why or why not? Research has found adults who engage in mentally and physically stimulating activities experience less cognitive decline and have a reduced incidence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia (Hertzog, Kramer, Wilson, & Lindenberger, 2009; Larson et al., 2006; Podewils et al., 2005). Despite the adverse consequences associated with reduced play, some children are over scheduled and have little free time to engage in unstructured play. Warm and healthy parent-child relationships have been associated with positive child outcomes, such as better grades and fewer school behavior problems, in the United States as well as in other countries (Hair et al., 2005). The toddler reacts to the parent the same way she reacts to a stranger. Through his observations of his children, Piaget developed a stage theory of intellectual development that included four distinct stages: During this earliest stage of cognitive development, infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects. The skin continues to lose elasticity, reaction time slows further, and muscle strength diminishes. Using developmental milestone checklists may be helpful for parents and caregivers who want to be sure that a child is growing in healthy ways. As we get older, socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that our social support and friendships dwindle in number, but remain as close, if not more close than in our earlier years (Carstensen, 1992) (Figure). For example, 10-year-old Layla says, “I’m kind of shy. Secondary sexual characteristics are physical signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve sex organs, such as development of breasts and hips in girls, and development of facial hair and a deepened voice in boys. Prior to this study, the medical and scientific communities generally thought that babies become attached to the people who provide their nourishment. At conception the egg and sperm cell are united to form a zygote, which will begin to divide rapidly. You can download it here for Android devices or here for Apple devices. (credit: Edwin Martinez). Temperament refers to innate traits that influence how one thinks, behaves, and reacts with the environment. Watch this inspiring story about Neil Unger who is a newbie to the world of skateboarding at 60 years old. The sequence of development refers to the expected pattern of development of a child from birth through to 19 years. It may help promote survival because this action helps the baby take in nourishment. Some developmental delays can be identified and addressed through early intervention. With them, their needs are fully satisfied. Excessive maternal drinking while pregnant can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders with life-long consequences for the child ranging in severity from minor to major ([link]). Various researchers over the years have developed models for examining businesses (see Exhibit 1). What is prenatal care and why is it important? Watch your child for cues about the warmth and reliability of all caregivers. This may aid survival because it helps the newborn locate a source of food. For those in early and middle adulthood, meaning is found through work (Sterns & Huyck, 2001) and family life (Markus, Ryff, Curan, & Palmersheim, 2004). (credit: Philippe Put). The Erikson stages show us how we progress as individuals throughout an entire life span. There are many ways to answer this question. The skin loses some elasticity, and wrinkles are among the first signs of aging. A baby whose parents speak French will coo in a different tone than a baby whose parents speak Spanish or Urdu. However, they have higher self-esteem, better social skills, and lower levels of depression. Which parenting style describes how you were raised? The first stage of group development is the forming stage. Children in Malawi take on adult responsibilities such as marriage and work (e.g., carrying water, tending babies, and working fields) as early as 10 years old. Here are six types of play. Based on how the infants/toddlers responded to the separation and reunion, Ainsworth identified three types of parent-child attachments: secure, avoidant, and resistant (Ainsworth & Bell, 1970). While raising children can be stressful, especially when they are young, research suggests that parents reap the rewards down the road, as adult children tend to have a positive effect on parental well-being (Umberson, Pudrovska, & Reczek, 2010). Self-concept is re-evaluated in Erikson’s adolescence stage, as teens form an identity. One well-researched aspect of cognitive development is language acquisition. If a baby is not holding up his head by 4 months old, he is showing a delay. First, talk to your child’s pediatrician and ask for a developmental screening. Outdoor play allows children the opportunity to directly experience and sense the world around them. The body, brain, and organs grow rapidly during this stage. When does a person become an adult? If you’re a caregiver or educator who needs to discuss a possible delay with parents, the CDC recommends that you approach the topic in a clear, compassionate way. They are both receptive (hearing and understanding) and expressive…, Fine motor skills are essential to living and learning. Mutually enjoyable interactions promote the mother-infant bond. Young people are spending more time exploring their options, so they are delaying marriage and work as they change majors and jobs multiple times, putting them on a much later timetable than their parents (Arnett, 2000). It was, however, also grounded in the historical and political context in which he wrote. The other monkey was softer and made from cloth: This monkey did not dispense milk. Developmental psychologists are interested in how infants reach this milestone. Mirroring Erikson’s stages, lifespan development is divided into different stages that are based on age. The adolescent brain also remains under development. Find out what they are and when they develop as well as what to do if you think your child’s…, Object permanence is when your baby understands that things (and people) that are out of sight still exist. For example, when a two-year-old child asks for juice, he might say, “me juice,” to which his mother might respond by giving him a cup of apple juice. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has created a free app to help you keep up with the many ways your child is growing and changing. The screening tools used by doctors are more thorough than online checklists, and they may give you more reliable information about your child’s abilities and progress. Changing cultural expectations may be the most important reason for the delay in entering adult roles. The attachment figure is used as a secure base to explore the environment and is sought out in times of stress. Physical declines of middle and late adulthood can be minimized with proper exercise, nutrition, and an active lifestyle. If there is a delay, identifying it early can sometimes make a big difference for the child. The baby monkeys spent their time clinging to the cloth monkey and only went to the wire monkey when they needed to be feed. The third phase of prenatal development (fetal stage) begins at 9 weeks and lasts until birth. Children raised by authoritative parents tend to have high self-esteem and social skills. It appears that most teens don’t experience adolescent storm and stress to the degree once famously suggested by G. Stanley Hall, a pioneer in the study of adolescent development. Step Two of Product Development: Ideation. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. (credit: Gabriel Rocha). This style can create anxious, withdrawn, and unhappy kids. [A] statement also warned patients that protection of unborn and newborn children from the harms of illegal drug abuse could involve the Charleston police, the Solicitor of the Ninth Judicial Court, and the Protective Services Division of the Department of Social Services (DSS). (credit: Kerry Ceszyk). We explain each of the four stages and explore…, Children reach developmental milestones at their own pace. Stages of child development are important measures of growth and maturity. How might they promote survival? Watch this video to see actual footage of Harlow’s monkey studies. During infancy and childhood, growth does not occur at a steady rate (Carel, Lahlou, Roger, & Chaussain, 2004). Strong parent-child bonds, good nutrition, adequate sleep, and a safe, nurturing environment at home and school will help ensure that children have the best chance of developing as they should. Also, through play children explore and come to understand their gender roles and can label themselves as a girl or boy (Chick, Heilman-Houser, & Hunter, 2002). Newborn infants weigh about 7.5 pounds. Then they start to venture out, and their first great achievement is not feeling anxiety in the absence of their mothe… Girls experience menarche, the beginning of menstrual periods, usually around 12–13 years old, and boys experience spermarche, the first ejaculation, around 13–14 years old. Therefore, by the time children reach school age, they are developmentally capable of controlling their attention and behavior. As your little one starts to explore and show interest in the world, they can play in different ways. If your child is 3 or older, you can speak to the special education director at the public school near your home (even if your child isn’t enrolled at that school) to ask for a developmental evaluation. Cognitive activities such as playing mahjong, chess, or other games, can keep you mentally fit. Follow up, making sure you share good news as well as concerns. Each stage centers around a specific crisis or conflict between competing tendencies. Doctors recommend that you speak to your baby a lot during this phase, because hearing your voice will help your baby to develop communication skills. Motor development occurs in an orderly sequence as infants move from reflexive reactions (e.g., sucking and rooting) to more advanced motor functioning. According to neuroscientist Jay Giedd in the Frontline video “Inside the Teenage Brain” (2013), “It’s sort of unfair to expect [teens] to have adult levels of organizational skills or decision-making before their brains are finished being built.” Watch this segment on “The Wiring of the Adolescent Brain” to find out more about the developing brain during adolescence. From birth to 12 months of age, infants must learn that adults can be trusted. At this age, children recognize their own personality traits as well as some other traits they would like to have. Therefore, it’s possible that easy children (i.e., social, adaptable, and easy to soothe) tend to elicit warm and responsive parenting, while demanding, irritable, withdrawn children evoke irritation in their parents or cause their parents to withdraw (Sanson & Rothbart, 1995). A zygote begins as a one-cell structure that is created when a sperm and egg merge. Interestingly, babies replicate sounds from their own languages. Other suggestions include: During the toddler years, children continue to need lots of sleep, good nutrition, and close, loving relationships with parents and caregivers. Imagine you are a nurse working at a clinic that provides prenatal care for pregnant women. Their feelings can keep you mentally fit, so they may see additional weight gain and changes. 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